Forklift and tow truck with fuel cell technology from Linde

Into the future with hydrogen

Fuel cell technology from Linde

How about refuelling a vehicle in just three minutes and no emissions during operation? What sounds like wishful thinking are two major advantages of one of the most promising energy systems of the future: fuel cell technology.


In addition to the application requirements, aspects such as the space required for refuelling or charging, energy costs and environmental compatibility play an important role in the selection of the appropriate energy system for industrial trucks. Against this background, the focus is increasingly on alternative drive systems that offer advantages over conventional solutions such as lead-acid batteries.


In this respect, fuel cells are included in addition to lithium-ion batteries. Linde Material Handling was the first manufacturer to begin exploring this technology and has been developing ready-to-use solutions since 1998. This gives logistics companies the opportunity to benefit from this future-oriented technology today.

How do fuel cells work?

Fuel cells function similarly to batteries, meaning that energy is generated by a chemical reaction. The crucial difference: In the fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen react to produce electricity, heat and water. This process is also called "cold combustion" and has some advantages, but also technical challenges.

Linde has solved the challenges together with technology partners and by converting the forklift trucks. For example, the heat generated is dissipated by a fan. In addition, an additional lithium-ion battery in this hybrid system ensures that peaks in performance are also covered. The battery is also fed from the regenerated braking energy. This means that nothing stands in the way of everyday use in logistics. On the contrary, the technology has some astonishing properties that have a lasting effect on the applications of industrial trucks.

8 Advantages of hydrogen technology

fast fuelling

The fuel cells are filled up with hydrogen in just three minutes. This increases the availability of the vehicles - a major advantage in tough multi-shift operation.

lower costs

The costs for hydrogen have fallen significantly in recent years. In addition, productivity increases due to the elimination of time-consuming battery changes and short refuelling times.

safe handling

The elimination of battery changes and potentially dangerous acids makes the handling of fuel cells particularly safe for users.

clean handling

Fuel cells are a clean alternative to lead-acid batteries. This makes them particularly suitable for use in hygiene-critical sectors such as the pharmaceutical and food industries.

longer lifespan

Fuel cells have an average service life of 10,000 operating hours. This reduces life cycle costs and the environmental impact.

space efficient

No battery charging stations or battery rooms: The infrastructure for hydrogen refuelling can be implemented in a space-saving manner. This provides more storage space.

enviromental friendly

"Cold combustion" only produces water vapour and heat. Hydrogen can be produced in an environmentally friendly way - from regenerative sources such as biogas, for example. This reduces CO2 emissions.

modern energy system

Companies are increasingly assuming responsibility for their impact on people and the environment. Fuel cells make an important contribution here, which is also rewarded by customers.

ideal applications

Multi-shift operation

By eliminating the need for battery changes, fast fuelling and the continuous performance level of the energy system, fuel cells increase efficiency in demanding multi-shift operation. This makes the technology interesting for both production environments and intensive logistics services, such as online mail order.

Food and pharmaceutical industry

Hygiene requirements such as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) play a central role in the logistics of the food industry. In the pharmaceutical industry, too, the strict guidelines of "Good Distribution Practice" (GDP) apply. Compared to lead-acid batteries, fuel cells eliminate possible contamination by acid or other chemicals.

Automotive and supply industry

High turnover rates and tight deadlines and cost targets in the automotive and supply industry require industrial trucks with high availability and continuous performance levels across all shifts. Fuel cell technology meets these requirements optimally.

Narrow room conditions

By eliminating the need for battery charging and changing stations, valuable storage space can be gained. The low-emission energy system also protects the room air under tight space conditions.

Fuel cells in the field

Study with BMW Group confirms economic efficiency

Linde Material Handling relies on strong and experienced partners for the development of industrial trucks with fuel cell technology. Under the name "H2IntraDrive", a comprehensive study of the economic and technical possibilities was started in 2013 together with the BMW Group and the Chair of Materials Handling Material Flow Logistics at the Technical University of Munich.

For this purpose, hydrogen-powered forklift trucks were used in the body shop of BMW-i vehicles in Leipzig - for over 20,000 operating hours. The result: the jointly developed hydrogen drive is already marketable today and can be used economically under certain conditions. Overall, the technology was convincing in its daily use in a production environment with its high availability as well as in the use of regeneratively produced hydrogen with less environmental impact. Since 2017, another study has been running under the name FFZ70.

Field test in DB Schenker transhipment warehouse

"E-LOG-BioFleet" is a joint project of Linde Material Handling, Fronius International, DB Schenker, OMV, HyCentA Research and Joanneum Research. In a transshipment warehouse of DB Schenker in Hörsching, Austria, ten pallet trucks with fuel-cell hybrid drive and the first indoor refuelling system for hydrogen in Europe were tested in practice.

In the publicly funded project, the vehicles could be fully integrated into the shift operation after a short introduction phase. The basic power requirement is also generated by the fuel cell, an integrated lithium-ion battery covers the power peaks and stores the recovered energy during braking.

Thanks to an optimized operating strategy and the recovery of braking energy, the system achieved a high degree of efficiency of up to 53 percent. At the same time, a vehicle produced one third less greenhouse gases over its entire life cycle than a comparable vehicle with lead-acid battery. The hydrogen came from reformed biogas.

Efficient plant logistics at Mercedes-Benz

With the motto "Daimler Goes Green", Mercedes-Benz is testing the use of forklifts with fuel cell drive. The location is the world's largest plant for Mercedes Sprinter vans in Düsseldorf. The popular transporters are produced here in three-shift operation.

Hydrogen technology helps to save time and personnel costs for changing batteries. Within just three minutes, the fuel cell is filled with hydrogen again and the truck is ready for use. The technology thus creates ideal conditions for smooth shift changes.

Requirements & Perspectives

With hydrogen to the optimal business case

Fuel cell technology is basically ready for use and, depending on the application requirements, is even the ideal energy system for some companies. However, the right solution and the associated investments must be developed individually for each company. There are a number of prerequisites for economical and efficient use:

  • Fleet size: As a rule, an economical business case arises from the use of around 20 vehicles.
  • Infrastructure: With an already existing hydrogen infrastructure for fuelling, economical use is generally possible. If this infrastructure has to be created first, the economic viability must be examined on a case-by-case basis.
  • Subsidies: Where there are subsidy opportunities for the establishment of a sustainable, hydrogen-powered fleet, this increases the likelihood that a viable solution can be implemented.

Investing in sustainable technology

Linde Material Handling regards fuel cells as a pioneering technology of the future. For this reason, the company is gradually integrating appropriate solutions into new products. As a result, this extraordinary energy system is developing into an everyday product that will replace conventional drives in many places.